7. Joint Replacement
This type of surgery, also called arthroplasty, is used in cases of severe hand arthritis. It involves replacing a joint that has been destroyed by arthritis with an artificial joint. This artificial joint may be made of metal, plastic, silicone rubber, or the own body tissue, such as a tendon.
This procedure is done to help treat compartment syndrome. This painful condition occurs when there is swelling and increased pressure in a small space, or compartment, in the body. Often this is caused by an injury. This pressure can interfere with blood flow to the body tissues and destroy function. Compartment syndrome may cause severe and increasing pain and muscle weakness.
For a fasciotomy, the doctor will make a cut or incision in the hand or arm. This decreases the pressure, lets the muscle tissue swell, and restores blood flow. Any tissue inside the area that is already damaged may be removed at this time. This procedure helps prevent any further damage and decrease in function of the affected hand.
9. Surgical drainage or Debridement
Hand infections are very common. Treatment for hand infections may include rest, using heat, elevation, antibiotics, and surgery. If there is a sore or abscess in the hand, surgical drainage may help remove any pus. If the infection or wound is severe, debridement may be used to clean dead and contaminated tissue from the wound. This prevents further infection and helps promote healing.
10. Brachial Plexus Injuries
The brachial plexus is a network of intertwined nerves that control movement and sensation in the arm and hand. The plexus is located on either side of the neck. A traumatic brachial plexus injury involves sudden nerve damage and may cause weakness, loss of feeling, or loss of movement in the shoulder, arm, or hand.
Mild brachial plexus injuries may heal without treatment. More severe injuries may require surgery to regain function of the arm or hand
11. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
In the center of the wrist, there is a space called the carpal tunnel where a major nerve (the median nerve) and nine tendons pass from the forearm into the hand. A very strong ligament forms a roof over the tunnel. When there is swelling in the carpal tunnel, pressure is put on the median nerve, which supplies most of the fingers and thumb with feeling and movement. When the pressure becomes great enough to compress the nerve, resulting in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
When symptoms are severe or do not improve with non-surgical treatments, surgery may be elected to enlarge the carpal tunnel by cutting (releasing) the ligament to allow more room for the median nerve.
12. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
This happens when the ulnar nerve, which passes through the cubital tunnel (a tunnel of muscle, ligament, and bone) on the inside of the elbow, becomes inflamed, swollen, and irritated. Cubital tunnel syndrome causes pain that feels a lot like the pain you feel when you hit the “funny bone” in the elbow. The “funny bone” in the elbow is the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow. The ulnar nerve starts in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers.
When symptoms are severe or do not improve with non-surgical treatments, surgery may be elected.